OP AMP LOW PASS FILTER : LOW PASS FILTER
OP AMP LOW PASS FILTER : HOME FURNACE AIR FILTER : PAPER AIR FILTER.
Op Amp Low Pass Filter
- A band-pass filter is a device that passes frequencies within a certain range and rejects (attenuates) frequencies outside that range. An example of an analogue electronic band-pass filter is an RLC circuit (a resistor–inductor–capacitor circuit).
- An Operational Amplifier is technically an electronic amplification circuit with an inverting and non-inverting input and an output, ready to be configured to act in a variety of different ways using various methods.
- Operational amplifier
- Operational amplifiers ("op-amps") are important building blocks for a wide range of electronic circuits. They had their origins in analog computers where they were used in many linear, non-linear and frequency-dependent circuits.
- A particularly bad or difficult moment
- A state of depression or low spirits
- A low point, level or figure
- less than normal in degree or intensity or amount; "low prices"; "the reservoir is low"
- an air mass of lower pressure; often brings precipitation; "a low moved in over night bringing sleet and snow"
- in a low position; near the ground; "the branches hung low"
Elk Pass photo op
OldManTravels and Elk Pass signpost along the Pacific Crest Trail. The two backpackers coming into view behind me are sturdy folks from St. Louis, who are doing the ENTIRE Mexico to Canada route of the PCT. They told us they frequently put in 25 to 30 mile days (not me).
They were really nice people and obviously in great shape. UPDATE 9.11.08: Thanks to Jay (tagman), who I met on the trail near Goat Lake on Sunday 9.7.08, I now know the through hikers (Mexico to Canada in one season), names: Mapman & Robin and thanks again to Jay, I got to check out some of their photos and journal (see Jay's comments below).
Friday August 15th, 2008 I packed my packpack and drove to the Scatter Creek trailhead up the North Fork of the Tieton River (the road is about 8 miles on the east side of White Pass in Washington State).
I began my backpack at 2:15 pm, late in the day for me, but I wanted to take advantage of the small window of good weather to visit the Goat Rocks Wilderness.
Four and quarter miles up trail 1118 I intersected the Pacfic Crest Trail (still called trail 2000 by many). The junction of 1118 and the PCT is called Tieton Pass.
From Tieton Pass I headed south on the PCT to the half mile long dead end trail that leads down into McCall Basin.
I visited a nice couple with three beautiful pack horses and a dog, who were camped in the basin, then set up my new Northface tadpole 23 backpacking tent for one. It turned out to be a great little tent.
I camped within sight and ear shot of the North Fork of the Tieton River about 1/4 mile downstreams from a waterfalls.
That evening I took my Canon G9 and hiked a mile up to the upper McCall Basin (which is lovely). I hiked the length of the meadow and then to the top of the waterfalls that enters the basin. Great scenery. Flowers, deer, and snow fields everywhere.
Saturday August 16th, I left camp with a light day pack at 7:15 am. A fellow solo backpacker (from Gig Harbor) camped near me at McCall Basin joined me on the day hike.
We hiked through aromatic fields of lupine to Elk Pass, roughly 3.5 miles from our campsites in McCall Basin.
We spotted a big billy goat near Elk Pass and kept our cameras going constantly with the far off vistas and the wildflowers, marmots, meadows, snow fields, boulder fields, and everything else that caught our attention along the trail.
At Elk Pass we met a couple from St. Louis who were doing the "whole thing" - - that is the Pacfic Crest Trail from Mexico to Canada. At times they put in 30 mile days. They were in great shape and obviously knew what they were doing.
From Elk Pass we hike over a mile toward Old Snowy Mt. where we could look down on the last saddle before the Old Snowy Mt. traverse of the PCT (two routes possible).
A herd of mountain goat were below us. Most were hard to photograph since they were on the snow and a long way off. A nannie and kid grazing in a lupine covered meadow offered us the opportunity to get a good "goat" photo in the "goat rocks".
The waypoint for the end of our day hike is (approximately): N46 31 25 W121 27 14 at just under 7,000 feet.
This position was exactly one mile by the lower PCT crossing of Old Snowy Mt. from the position I day hiked up to on the last day of July in 2008 (from Chambers Lake) and I could easily see where I had stood just a couple of weeks ago across the way.
We returned to McCall Basin camp to find it hot and the mosquitoes intolerable (for me). I broke camp, shouldered my backpack and by 3:45 pm was making my way back to my truck at the Scatter Creek trailhead.
I reached the truck at a little before 7:00 pm, happy for the wonderful country I had visited once again, and very happy to be out of the mosquitoes.
I had hike 9 miles with a day pack and another 6 miles with my backpack, which was plenty for me for the day. I couldn't imagine the St. Louis couple who were putting 25-30 miles a day in, with full packs.
As the 8pin LM2940 op-amp is a dual amp, I've distributed the amplification to both amps. The first stage still adds an offset and has adjustable amplification, the 2nd stage is a fixed at a factor of 11. I've also added a low-pass filter at the output to smooth the signal some more. C5 was added for AC coupling and must be at least as big as C1. D2 was added to allow C5 to be discharged and be ready for the next pulse.
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